Transmembrane proteins


Ciloa produces native transmembrane proteins, such as receptors (GPCRs, Receptor Kinases), ion channels, transporters, viral envelope proteins and more.

From single-transmembrane to multi-transmembrane proteins

Transmembrane or integral membrane proteins (GPCRs, ion channels, transporters, viral envelope proteins…) are proteins that penetrate the lipid bilayer of the membrane. They differ according to their topologies and to their functions.Rhodopsin exosome

Membrane proteins may possess a single-transmembrane domain or multi-transmembrane domains. Generally, due to their high hydrophobic character, multi-transmembrane proteins are the most challenging to produce out of cells.

Receptors, ion channels, transporters

Depending on their functions, membrane proteins could be adhesion proteins required for cell to cell interactions, receptor proteins to transduce external information into the cell, transporter proteins and ion channel proteins that play a role in nutriment and ion concentrations, respectively. Due to regulating functions, most ion channels and receptors are difficult to over-express in cells. The most promising therapeutical targets are those receptors that pertain to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), the receptor kinase and the ion channel classes .

Ciloa produces all types of transmembrane proteins on natural exosomes.